The book traces the history of forestry since the middle of the 19th century in the erstwhile territorial units that constitute the present state of Karnataka, in India. It provides glimpses of the forest policy and management of the British Indian government which had laid the foundations of scientific forestry in the Indian subcontinent. A chronological account of the development of national forest policies, plans, and strategies in post-independent India has also been given in the context of their impact on forest management in the states. The book dwells comprehensively on multifarious aspects of forestry including the challenges faced by a forester in a situation of increasing demand and shrinking forest. It highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the forest administration and recommends strategies to protect the remaining natural forest and to increase the tree cover everywhere to effectively confront the specter of environmental catastrophes facing the planet earth. The book has brought out the inseparable and intrinsic relationship of mutual interdependence between forest and water – two of the most important natural resources on which the future of mankind depends, and calls for urgent action. With detailed data, analysis, and inferences derived with an open mind, the book forms a reference document for the present and future foresters. Problems of the forestry sector in the developing world are similar. Although the book focuses on the forestry scenario in Karnataka, lessons learned and strategies recommended for forest conservation are relevant across a larger landscape, with similar challenges and problems.