Livestock husbandry is a vital component of National economic framework and is pivotal to livelihood and nutritional security across all sections of the society. Pre-meditated and strategic expansion approaches in livestock production system would therefore pay rich dividend not only in terms of poverty alleviation but would contribute to the burgeoning demand of food security. While these projections offer major prospects for livestock production, the emerging concern for environmental deterioration and food safety linked to intensive livestock production are key issues of apprehension. These factors involve different dimension in relatively fragile ecosystem of hills and thus needs special emphasis and consideration. This compilation focuses on latest updates on livestock health and production science with emphasis to hilly areas. It will help the Livestock and Veterinary Sciences students, teachers, researchers, policy makers and extension workers in understanding the issues involved and technological advances that can help in adapting livestock husbandry in these areas to the challenges of ever-increasing demand of animal products and newer food safety regulations.